Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria
The inclusion criteria were as follows: obesity: BMI 30 kg/m2, control: BMI < 25 kg/m2, patients with any disorders of the reproductive system were excluded from the study diabetes: men diagnosed with diabetes control group: healthy men without diabetes patients with any disorders of the reproductive system were excluded from the study types of studies included: case-control studies Literature published in English. The exclusion criteria were as followed: case-series/reports, expert opinions, basic science, conference abstracts and review articles Animal experiments, cell experiments and other articles without available data articles with poor quality and obvious statistical errors.
Table.1 Characteristics of people with diabetes included in the study
What Can Be Done About Diabetes And Fertility
Unfortunately the UK is seeing an unprecedented rise in the number of incidences of diabetes as a consequence of increasing obesity, which in turn is largely linked to unhealthy diets heavily reliant on unhealthy sugars and fats.
The best solution is prevention as the disease cant be cured. You can avoid diabetes, even if you have a family history of the illness, by making sure your diet isnt full of sugary foods and by keeping to a healthy weight. Not only will this avoid diabetes and its effects on your fertility, but a healthy diet and good weight are also proven methods of helping your fertility.
If you already suffer from diabetes, then managing your disease well will prevent it from taking its toll on your fertility. What that entails is keeping to a healthy diet which is low in sugars, exercising regularly and controlling your weight, keeping regular checks on your blood sugar and taking your insulin when youre meant to.
Q What Are Some Considerations For Someone Planning On Pregnancy
Its important to know that women with diabetes can still fall pregnant and have a healthy pregnancy. Glycaemic control at conception is important for the prevention of congenital abnormalities, the risk of which is increased if blood glucose levels are elevated. Guidelines for pre-existing diabetes and pregnancy recommend that women delay pregnancy if their HbA1c is above 10%, as this is associated with a significantly increased risk of congenital abnormalities and miscarriages. Ideally, we aim for HbA1c to be less than 6.5%.
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How Does Type 2 Diabetes Affect Female Fertility
Diabetes, obesity and PCOS: Generally, Type 2 diabetes occurs in postmenopausal women, but with modern dietary and lifestyle patterns, obesity is on a high, thus raising the incidence of Type 2 diabetes during the reproductive years.
Obesity is associated with irregular menstrual cycles and also linked to PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome . It is a metabolic disorder and characterized by an excess of androgens , cysts on the ovaries and irregular menstrual cycles/lack of ovulation. Between 50-70% of women who have PCOS also have insulin resistance.
Adiponectin is a hormone that improves insulin sensitivity and prevents obesity. In women with PCOS, lower levels of adiponectin lead to poor sensitivity to insulin and fat breakdown. Thus, PCOS coexists with diabetes and obesity this is a triple threat to fertility and reproductive health.
Losing weight with a healthy diet and exercise is the most effective way to correct insulin resistance, increase fertility and prevent Type 2 diabetes and the resulting complications.
Conventional And Biofunctional Sperm Parameters
Conventional sperm parameters were significantly different in the three groups of patients . Patients with DM1 or DM2 showed a statistically significant decrease in sperm concentration as compared to controls and DM2 patients had a slightly lower sperm concentration than DM1 patients. Progressive motility was lower in patients with DM1 and DM2 compared to controls , and it was lower in DM1 than in DM2 patients . Seminal fluid volume was significantly lower in patients with DM1 , while it did not seem to undergo significant changes in DM2 patients compared to controls. Diabetic patients showed a lower percentage of spermatozoa with normal form compared to controls . The concentration of peroxidase-positive leukocytes evaluated by optical microscopy was significantly higher in patients with DM2 than in the two groups .
Figure 1. Conventional sperm parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus , type 2 diabetes mellitus , and the control group. *p< 0.05 vs. CTL p< 0.05 vs. DM1. The results are expressed as mean ± SEM.
In Figure 2, we show dot plots related to flow cytometric evaluation of MMP, vitality/apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation of a control, a DM1 patient and DM2 patient .
The evaluation of biofunctional sperm parameters showed that the percentage of spermatozoa with low MMP was higher in both groups of diabetic patients .
Table 2. Conventional and biofunctional sperm parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus according to the duration of the disease.
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Glucose Metabolism Testing Is A Key Part Of Infertility Workups
Our study outlines the importance of glucose metabolism investigation during every basic infertility evaluation, says Boeri. Prediabetes is a common but underdiagnosed condition in the general population and infertile men. Our findings are relevant given the clinical importance of prediabetes, especially for its harmful possibilities in terms of future overall mens health and for possible countermeasures to be taken as early as possible in relatively young persons.
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Diabetes Drug Linked To Genital Birth Defects In Baby Boys
In men, the use of metformin may affect sperm development in a way that increases birth defects in their sons, a study found.
Researchers found that boys were more likely to have genital birth defects if their fathers took a common diabetes drug, metformin, during the three months before conception.ink drop
Boys were more likely to be born with genital birth defects if their fathers took the commonly prescribed diabetes drug metformin in the three months before conception, according to a new study by Stanford Medicine investigators and their collaborators in Denmark.
The finding adds to a limited but growing understanding of how paternal factors can affect the health of children.
For women, we know a lot about risk factors. Theres a list of medications that women are not supposed to take when theyre pregnant, for example, said Michael Eisenberg, MD, professor of urology at Stanford and senior author of the study. Given that men contribute half the DNA to a child, it makes sense that there could be some effects that travel through paternal pathways as well.
In fact, the magnitude of the risk associated with metformin in the new study is on par with more well-known maternal contributors to birth defects, such as pregnancy after age 45 a comparison that Eisenberg calls sobering.
These results suggest that metformin affects mens reproductive health in a way that can harm their sons, though the mechanisms are still unclear.
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Q Does Diabetes Affect Fertility Does It Matter Which Type You Have
Yes, both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes impact fertility in different ways.
Type 1 diabetes
Fertility issues can occur due to general dysfunction in the hormonal control responsible for stimulating a regular menstrual cycle. The longer the duration of Type 1 diabetes in women, the more they are at risk of these irregularities. Women with Type 1 diabetes are also at a greater risk of other autoimmune conditions such as Coeliac disease and Hashimotos thyroiditis which can contribute to infertility if not identified and treated.
Type 2 diabetes
The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in women of child-bearing age is increasing. The common contributing factors to Type 2 diabetes include obesity and PCOS, both of which can cause fertility issues on their own. Driven by insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes impacts fertility due hormonal imbalances and lack of regular menstrual cycles.
Effect Of Diabetes On Fertility
Healthcare about diabetes can always be a tough task to navigate through. Diabetes is a condition that, in itself, can cause several issues to the body and overall well-being of a person. The mere fluctuations in the blood sugar levels can be severely distressing to various organs of the body. The highs and lows, especially if unmanageable, can cause damage to the kidneys, lungs, liver, heart, eyes, feet, etc. These complications can occur in association with diabetes.
Several other aspects might run in the minds of people diagnosed with diabetes. It is almost like a never-ending struggle. One of the major aspects that need to be considered is fertility and pregnancy. It does not matter whether the diagnosis is T1D or T2D, diabetes is known to have some effect on the fertility rates in males and females and overall complications during pregnancy. The questions are not redundant many endocrinologists and gynecologists are often asked questions like can my wife get pregnant if I have diabetes? Since fertility, sex drive, and pregnancy are important parts of a marriage and planning a family, these questions are often asked by young adults.
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The Relation Between Type 1 Diabetes And Male Fertility
When suffering from Type I Diabetes, there is an attack on our insulin-producing cells in the body which makes difficult for us to regulate blood sugar. Consequently, we need to have daily external doses to supplement our body for insulin. This condition is hazardous for the fertility of men and obstructs them to impregnate their partner.
The History Of The Link Between Diabetes And Male Infertility
Without treatment, prediabetes can become type 2 diabetes. Having type 2 or type 1 diabetes has been linked to male fertility issues such as overall sperm quality and sperm DNA integration, as well as other issues, such as decreased sperm motility and concentration and decreased semen volume, says Boeri. But prediabetes and infertility hasnt been studied before. Prediabetes is a common clinical condition, but its association with male infertility has never been fully investigated, he says.
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Nefi Surrogacy & Egg Donation Blog
Welcome to the New England Fertility Blog! Our blog is just one of the many ways the New England Fertility surrogacy and egg donation team communicates with potential intended parents who travel from all over the world for expert treatment and care. We invite you to discover the wealth of information our blog has to offer, from posts on LGBTQ+ family building, to information on how to start your journey with surrogacy, finding the perfect egg donor, female fertility after age 35, pregnancy and nutrition, and more- thereâs something for every unique situation! Looking to take your first step? We’re ready when you are, check out our many complimentary events orrequest your complimentary Surrogacy Skype or phone consultation with Dr. Lavy!
Assessment Of Sperm Ndna Fragmentation By Modified Alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay
nDNA fragmentation was assessed using an alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay as previously modified by our group . Briefly, aliquots of neat semen were adjusted with PureSperm ® wash to give a sperm concentration of 6 × 10 6 ml 1 . Those semen samples with an initial concentration less than this were used without dilution. Following the initial preparation of the sperm sample, all subsequent steps were carried out in a climate controlled room under yellow light, to prevent induced DNA damage.
Embedding of sperm in agarose gel
Fully frosted microscope slides were heated gently, coated with 100 µl of 0.5% normal melting point agarose in phosphate-buffered saline , kept at 45°C and immediately covered with a glass coverslip . Slides were left at ambient temperature to allow the agarose to solidify. The coverslips were removed, and 10 µl of diluted semen was mixed with 75 µl of 0.5% low-melting point agarose at 37°C. This cell suspension was pipetted over the first layer of gel, covered with a glass coverslip and allowed to solidify at ambient temperature.
Lysing of cells and decondensation of DNA
Unwinding of DNA
Slides were removed from the lysis solution and drained of any residual fluid. Fresh alkaline electrophoresis solution was prepared and poured into a horizontal gel electrophoresis tank. The agarose coated slides were placed side by side in the tank, for 20 min, allowing the exposed DNA to unwind.
Can Diabetes Affect Fertility
Dietitian Larissa Telfer works in both private practice in Geelong and in hospital as a clinical dietitian. Shes also a qualified diabetes educator and enjoys working with people with Type 1 diabetes throughout pregnancy, using latest the technology. Today, I speak to Larissa about how diabetes can affect fertility. Does it matter if you have Type 1 or Type 2? Well answer these questions and more.
How Diabetes In Both Men & Women Cause Fertility Issues Pregnancy Complications
Diabetes can affect both male and female fertility.
Diabetes is highly prevalent in India, so much that the country has the second-highest diabetic caseload in the world. This chronic disease, characterized by high blood glucose levels, impacts life immensely and puts you at risk of other diseases too. COVID-19 is one such example. But, do you know that it has a major impact on the reproductive health of both males and females? If you are trying to conceive unsuccessfully, getting your blood sugar levels checked might help you a great deal. To understand this issue in detail, Onlymyhealth spoke to Dr. Hrishikesh Pai, Consultant Gynaecologist & Infertility Specialist.
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Assessment Of Sperm Mtdna Deletions By Long
Sperm DNA isolation
DNA was isolated from sperm samples using a Puregene DNA isolation kit . Briefly, samples previously frozen in liquid nitrogen were allowed to defrost at room temperature and then centrifuged at 16 000 g for 1 min to pellet cells. The supernatant was removed and 300 µl of cell lysis solution added and pipette mixed. Following this, 12 µl of 1 M DTT and 1.5 µl of 20 mg ml 1 Proteinase k were added. Samples were inverted 25 times and incubated at 55°C overnight to allow complete lysis of the cells.
After cooling to room temperature, 1.5 µl of RNAse A solution was added to the cell lysate and incubated for 1 h at 37°C. Samples were again allowed to cool to room temperature prior to adding 100 µl of protein precipitation solution . Samples were placed on ice for 5 min and then centrifuged at 16 000 g for 4 min to pellet the precipitated proteins. DNA was precipitated by pouring the supernatant containing the DNA into an Eppendorf tube containing 300 µl of 100% isopropanol and inverting 50 times. Following centrifugation at 16 000 g for 1 min and removal of supernatant, the tube was inverted on absorbent paper to drain for 15 min. The DNA pellet was subsequently washed with 300 µl 70% ethanol by inversion several times before centrifugation at 16 000 g for 1 min. The supernatant was removed and the DNA pellet allowed to dry. Following this, DNA was re-hydrated by adding 50 µl of DNA hydration solution to the tube and incubating for 1 h at 65°C.
Type 1 Diabetes & Female Fertility
Fertility issues can occur in women with type 1 diabetes due to general dysfunction in hormonal control responsible for stimulating menstrual cycles, animal studies have shown an adverse impact of egg quality. Sub-optimal blood glucose control at time of conception and in early pregnancy increases risk of pregnancy loss and congenital abnormalities.
Advancements in technology and medical treatments of type 1 diabetes have led to reduced occurrence of these outcomes, as optimising blood sugar levels prior to conception reduces the risk of any adverse outcomes. This is why it is so important to work with a dietitian, diabetes educator and endocrinologist when planning your pregnancy!
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Type I Diabetes And Male Fertility
Can type I diabetes affect male fertility? It definitely does. In Type I diabetes, the body of the man attacks its own insulin-producing cells, making it much more difficult for the blood sugar regulation. This will result in the man having to supplement the daily insulin needs of the body with external doses. The most dangerous type of diabetes to have, it does affect fertility, and men who have this condition might need special care and medication from the doctor in order to impregnate their partner.
What Does Diabetes Have To Do With Male Fertility
It has only been recently that male fertility has been found to suffer under the effects of diabetes. More specifically, diabetes seems to damage the quality of sperm, the male sex cells which interact with their female counterpart to conceive. Damaged sperm are much less likely to successfully conceive, and even after conception, are thought to increase the chances of miscarriage.
While not a predominant cause of male infertility, diabetes, and in particular type I diabetes, seems to play a role in male infertility. Fortunately this understanding means that steps can be taken to improve your fertility, as will be discussed below.
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Pcos And Type 2 Diabetes
PCOS stands for polycystic ovarian syndrome, a condition in which hormonal imbalances create multiple cysts on a woman’s ovaries, leading to unpredictable menstrual cycles and infertility. Research has shown a strong correlation between PCOS and Type 2 diabetes .
In addition to erratic menstrual cycles, PCOS can also cause women to miss their periods altogether, or produce immature eggs. Both PCOS and Type 2 diabetes are characterized by unhealthy levels of blood glucose and a resistance to insulin. A variety of medications can be prescribed to help lessen or reverse the effects of PCOS. Metformin is one of the most popular drugs. Metformin was prescribed for diabetes long before it was found to be successful in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome . As with Type 2 diabetes, a healthy lifestyle can also go a long way toward reducing or eliminating PCOS . The key is to bring blood sugar levels into a normal and stable range while combating insulin resistance.
In some instances, women who are neither unhealthy nor overweight develop Type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hispanic and African-American women also have a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PCOS .
Diabetes doesn’t preclude men and women from reproducing. It does, however, require professional guidance, meticulous maintenance of health, and monitoring of blood sugar and hormonal levels. With proper care and attention, the vast majority of diabetics can have healthy offspring.