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Insulin Is Produced By The …

How Should I Store My Insulin

Where is Insulin Produced in our Body?
  • Keep current insulin at room temperature to help alleviate injection discomfort.

  • Insulin can usually be stored at room temperature for about a month. Once in use, insulin pens should be stored at room temperature. Expiration dates of insulin pens can vary depending upon the type of insulin. For disposable pens, you should discard the entire device when empty or when you reach the expiration date.

  • Store extra insulin in the refrigerator.

  • Dont expose insulin to excessive cold or heat.

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The Effects Of Insulin On The Body

Insulin is a natural hormone produced by your pancreas that controls how your body uses and stores blood sugar . Its like a key that allows glucose to enter cells throughout your body.

Insulin is a vital part of metabolism. Without it, your body would cease to function.

When you eat, your pancreas releases insulin to help your body make energy out of glucose, a type of sugar found in carbohydrates. It also helps you store energy.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas initially produces insulin, but the cells of your body are unable to make good use of the insulin. This is called insulin resistance.

Unmanaged diabetes allows glucose to build up in the blood rather than being distributed to cells or stored. This can wreak havoc with virtually every part of your body.

Blood tests can quickly indicate whether your glucose levels are too high or too low.

Complications of diabetes include kidney disease, nerve damage, heart problems, eye problems, and stomach problems.

People with type 1 diabetes need insulin therapy to live. Some people with type 2 diabetes must also take insulin therapy to control their blood sugar levels and avoid complications.

If you have diabetes, insulin therapy can do the job your pancreas cant. The following types of insulin are available:

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Causes Of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition, where the immune system mistakes the cells in your pancreas as harmful and attacks them.

Without insulin, your body will break down its own fat and muscle, resulting in weight loss. This can lead to a serious short-term condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. This is when the bloodstream becomes acidic, you develop dangerous levels of ketones in your blood stream and become severely dehydrated.

This results in the body being unable to produce insulin, which is required to move glucose out of the blood and into your cells to be used for energy. This is called Type 1 diabetes.

Read more about the causes of type 1 diabetes

External Insulin Reaches The Brain

What is the process whereby insulin is produced in a normal human cell ...

As outlined above, a normal supply of insulin in the brain appears to be crucial for neural function, including metabolism, and, consequently, dynamic or persistent alterations in insulin-dependent mechanisms could contribute to pathological processes. The sources of insulin found in the brain are not completely clear. It is generally accepted that insulin synthesised by pancreatic beta cells is delivered to the brain , but an accurate picture of this process is missing . Pancreatic insulin circulating in the plasma has two ways into the interstitial fluid immediately surrounding neurons and glial cells of the brain.

Fig. 1

The first pathway delivers relatively small amounts of plasma insulin through the choroid plexus to the cerebrospinal fluid. Plasma concentrations of insulin are an order of magnitude higher compared with those measured in the cerebrospinal fluid . Interestingly, this difference is increased in obesity , despite the higher plasma insulin concentrations in obese individuals. This process is saturable , but it is not clear whether saturation is caused by the potential involvement of insulin receptors of the choroid plexus or by the suspected contribution of megalin, a transporter known to mediate leptin transport across the choroid plexus and to be involved in insulin transport in the epithelial cells of renal tubules .

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The Need For Preparing Genetically Engineered Insulin

Insulin has been used for many years to treat diabetes. Diabetes is well managed by taking insulin. Earlier insulin was extracted from the pancreas of killed cattle and pigs. It had shortcomings. It used to stimulate allergic reactions and other immune responses due to its foreign origin in some people. Another challenge was to cater to the ever increasing demand and large scale production.

To overcome this, the production of insulin by recombinant DNA technology was done and it has proved to be very beneficial. In fact, it was the first recombinant medicine to be used in the USA.

Biosynthetic insulin produced by rDNA technology is purer than animal insulin. It reduces the formation of antibodies against it.

Evolution And Species Distribution

Insulin may have originated more than a billion years ago. The molecular origins of insulin go at least as far back as the simplest unicellular eukaryotes. Apart from animals, insulin-like proteins are also known to exist in the Fungi and Protista kingdoms.

Insulin is produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets in most vertebrates and by the Brockmann body in some teleost fish.Cone snailsConus geographus and Conus tulipa, venomous sea snails that hunt small fish, use modified forms of insulin in their venom cocktails. The insulin toxin, closer in structure to fishes’ than to snails’ native insulin, slows down the prey fishes by lowering their blood glucose levels.

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Exercise & Physical Activity

Since Chauveu & Kaufmans remarkable observation in 1887 that When a horse chews on hay the concentration of glucose in the blood draining its masseter muscle substantially decreases74 a large body of evidence supports the role of exercise in improving insulin sensitivity and its beneficial outcomes in insulin resistant states. Epidemiological studies such as the US Physicians Health Study have reported substantial decreases in the relative risk of type 2 diabetes with lifelong regular physical activity.75 Large scale randomised controlled clinical trials such as the Diabetes Prevention Program76 and the Finnish Prevention Study77 demonstrate a 58% reduction in progression of impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes by intensive lifestyle modification which included a minimum of 2030 minutes of exercise per day. Acute exercise increases GLUT 4 translocation to sarcolemmal membrane, whereas chronic exercise training increases Glut 4 mRNA expression.78 In addition to this insulin-dependent mechanism, enhanced glucose uptake into exercising muscle occurs by multiple insulinin dependent mechanisms.79 Exercise training appears to enhance insulin sensitivity by increased post-receptor insulin signalling 80 increased insulin-mediated glucose transport appears to be related to enhanced signal transduction at the level of IRS proteins and PI 3-kinase.79

Where Is The Gene For Human Insulin Inserted In The Bacterium

What is insulin?

A small piece of circular DNA called a plasmid? is extracted from the bacteria or yeast cell. A small section is then cut out of the circular plasmid by restriction enzymes, molecular scissors. The gene for human insulin is inserted into the gap in the plasmid.

How is the insulin gene cloned?

Cloning of Human insulin in a bacterial host Gene segments corresponding to the mature A & B chains of insulin are engineered into separate bacterial plasmids with an antibiotic resistance gene and a B-gal structural gene as markers. The plasmids are separately transformed into E. coli.

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Why Do Some People Get Type 2 Diabetes

No one knows for sure why some people get type 2 diabetes, but its likely a combination of genes and the environment. Many teens who get it have someone in their family who has it too.

Type 2 diabetes happens more often in people:

  • who are overweight. When a person has extra weight, sugar in the blood doesnt get into the cells as well as it should. But people dont have to be overweight to get type 2 diabetes.
  • during puberty. Many kids and teens are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes around puberty. As growth hormone levels normally rise during puberty, insulin does not work as well.
  • with polycystic ovary syndrome . Girls and women with PCOS have insulin resistance and are more likely to get type 2 diabetes.
  • whose mothers had diabetes during pregnancy. Babies are exposed to more sugar in the womb when their mother has diabetes. This along with genetic factors increase the chance of getting type 2 diabetes later in life.

Structural Analysis And Synthesis

Purified animal-sourced insulin was initially the only type of insulin available for experiments and diabetics. John Jacob Abel was the first to produce the crystallised form in 1926. Evidence of the protein nature was first given by Michael Somogyi, Edward A. Doisy, and Philip A. Shaffer in 1924. It was fully proven when Hans Jensen and Earl A. Evans Jr. isolated the amino acids phenylalanine and proline in 1935.

The amino acid structure of insulin was first characterized in 1951 by Frederick Sanger, and the first synthetic insulin was produced simultaneously in the labs of Panayotis Katsoyannis at the University of Pittsburgh and Helmut Zahn at RWTH Aachen University in the mid-1960s.Synthetic crystalline bovine insulin was achieved by Chinese researchers in 1965. The complete 3-dimensional structure of insulin was determined by X-ray crystallography in Dorothy Hodgkin‘s laboratory in 1969.

Two other Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work on insulin. British molecular biologist Frederick Sanger, who determined the primary structure of insulin in 1955, was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.Rosalyn Sussman Yalow received the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the development of the radioimmunoassay for insulin.

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Can Improve Patients Daily Lives

Our findings might mean that insulin production can be partially restored if we can find a way of stopping the disease process. The potential for insulin production is greater than previously thought. The risk of developing health problems later on is lower for those who manage to maintain a certain level of insulin production. Less supplementary insulin means that you will be better off as a patient, says Krogvold.

Structure And Chemical Properties Of Insulin

llustration of insulin and glucose production in Type 2 diabetes Stock ...

Insulin was found to be a polypeptide in 1928 with its amino acid sequence identified in 1952. It is in fact a dipeptide, containing A and B chains respectively, linked by disulphide bridges, and containing 51 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 5802. Its iso-electric point is pH 5.5.5 The A chain comprises 21 amino acids and the B chain 30 amino acids. The A chain has an N-terminal helix linked to an anti-parallel C-terminal helix the B chain has a central helical segment. The two chains are joined by 2 disulphide bonds, which join the N- and C-terminal helices of the A chain to the central helix of the B chain. In pro-insulin, a connecting peptide links the N-terminus of the A chain to the C-terminus of the B chain.6

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Body Can Regain The Ability To Produce Insulin

Researchers have discovered that patients with type 1 diabetes can regain the ability to produce insulin. They showed that insulin-producing cells can recover outside the body.

Hand-picked beta cells from the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Photo: Oskar Skog, Uppsala University.

Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease that affects many children and adolescents. The disease causes the pancreas to stop producing insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels.

When blood sugar levels are too high, the smallest blood vessels in the body eventually become damaged. This can lead to serious health problems further down the line, including heart attacks, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and foot amputations.

Professor Knut Dahl-Jørgensen and doctoral student Lars Krogvold are leading a research project, , in which they want to ascertain among other things whether a virus in the pancreas might cause type 1 diabetes.

They have previously discovered viruses in hormone-producing cells, the so-called islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas. Now their research has generated some new and surprising results.

Lars Krogvold, doctoral student at the University of Oslo and paediatrician at Oslo University Hospital. Photo: Private

Why Is Insulin So Expensive

One of the problems encountered with insulin is its price tag. There are many reasons why diabetes medication is so expensive and more costly than it used to be.

Shockingly, 15 years ago a patient with diabetes would have to pay around $175 for a 20-milliliter vial of insulin, but today he or she would have to pay $1,478 for the same amount, as Stat News reports.

Why is this happening?

There are many reasons why insulin is still so expensive. Heres a rundown of some of them.

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Common Conditions Associated With Insulin Resistance

Type 2 Diabetes

Following pioneering work by Bornstein112 and the Nobel Prize-winning work of Yalow and Berson,113 the first insulin assays became widely available in the late 1960s 28 it was subsequently confirmed that diabetic patients with so-called or maturity onset or type 2 diabetes had normal or increased plasma insulin levels. Insulin resistance was reported to be a characteristic feature of T2DM in the early 1970s.3 A progressive inability of the cells to compensate for the prevailing insulin resistance by sufficient hyperinsulinaemia, heralds the clinical onset of this disorder.3 While twin studies and linkage analyses are consistent with a strong genetic component in the development of type 2 diabetes, several decades of research have failed to identify a predominant genetic abnormality in the majority of cases.26 The aetiology of T2DM is thought to be polygenic, with environmental factors being superimposed upon this basic predisposition.

Insulin resistance typically predates the development of diabetes and is commonly found in unaffected first-degree relatives.28 The morbidity of the disorder relates both to the severity of hyperglycaemia and the metabolic consequences of insulin resistance itself. The primary defects in insulin action appear to be in muscle cells and adipocytes, with impaired GLUT 4 translocation resulting in impaired insulin-mediated glucose transport.28

Metabolic Syndrome

  • Abdominal obesity
  • Women < 50 mg/dL
  • Dyslipidaemia



    Recover The Ability To Produce Insulin

    How to do an Insulin Injection

    Lars Krogvold explains:

    We found that the insulin-producing cells still have the ability to produce insulin when they are stimulated in the lab.

    But whats new is our additional discovery that the cells increased their ability to produce insulin after a few days outside the body.

    Indeed, some became roughly as good at making insulin as cells from people without diabetes.

    Some of the hormone-producing cells in the pancreas, the beta cells, produce insulin when they are stimulated by sugar.

    Previous work has shown that you do not immediately lose your ability to produce insulin when you are first diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

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    The Pancreas And Insulin

    The pancreas is responsible for producing insulin. The cells which produce insulin are beta cells. These cells are distributed in a cluster of cells in the pancreas called the Islets of Langerhans, named after the anatomist who discovered them

    Insulin is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by assisting the transport of glucose from the blood into neighbouring cells.

    What Causes Someone To Be Prescribed Insulin

    If your body doesnt make insulin or doesnt make enough, you are eventually diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. It used to be called juvenile diabetes, but new estimates show that as many as half of people with type 1 diabetes are not diagnosed until adulthood. On the other hand, if your body doesnt use insulin properly, you have type 2 diabetes.

    While people with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin to survive, many people with type 2 are able to stave off insulin use or even avoid it altogether by exercising, losing weight, adapting healthier eating habits, or using other prescription medications.

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    Transgenic Plants As Host For Insulin Production

    Transgenic plants have been utilized to produce recombinant proteins because of their advantage of cost effectiveness, high quality protein processing, absence of human pathogens, ease of production and presence of eukaryotic machinery for posttranslational modifications. Initially, the human growth hormone was the recombinant protein product extracted from transgenic tobacco plant . After that, numerous different products have developed from plants such as Hepatitis-B-Virus surface antigen, antibodies, industrial proteins and milk proteins.

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