What Part Of The Endocrine System Produces Insulin
The most important hormone that the pancreas produces is insulin. Insulin is released by the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in response to food. Its role is to lower glucose levels in the bloodstream and promote the storage of glucose in fat, muscle, liver and other body tissues.
Does the endocrine system secrete insulin?
The endocrine system and energy metabolism The pancreas plays an important part in energy metabolism by secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon which respectively make glucose and fatty acids available for cells to use for energy.
Produced In The Pancreas
When you eat, food travels to your stomach and small intestines, where its broken down into nutrients that include glucose. The nutrients are absorbed and distributed via your bloodstream.
The pancreas is a gland located behind your stomach that performs an essential role in the digestion process. It creates enzymes that break down the fat, starches, and sugar in the food. It also secretes insulin and other hormones into your bloodstream.
Insulin is created in the beta cells of the pancreas. Beta cells comprise about 75% of pancreatic hormone cells.
Other hormones produced by the pancreas are:
- glucagon, which alerts your liver to raise your blood sugar if it gets too low
- gastrin, which stimulates the production of gastric acid in your stomach
- amylin, which helps control your appetite
How Does Insulin Resistance Affect My Body
The development of insulin resistance typically increases insulin production so your body can maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Elevated levels of insulin can result in weight gain, which, in turn, makes insulin resistance worse.
Hyperinsulinemia is also associated with the following conditions:
You dont have to have all four of these features to have metabolic syndrome.
You May Like: Diabetes Doctor Blood Sugar 24 Hour
Diabetes Sick Day Rules
If you need to take insulin to control your diabetes, you should have received instructions about looking after yourself when you’re ill known as your “sick day rules”.
Contact your diabetes care team or GP for advice if you haven’t received these.
The advice you’re given will be specific to you, but some general measures that your sick day rules may include could be to:
- keep taking your insulin it’s very important not to stop treatment when you’re ill your treatment plan may state whether you need to temporarily increase your dose
- test your blood glucose level more often than usual most people are advised to check the level at least four times a day
- keep yourself well hydrated make sure you drink plenty of sugar-free drinks
- keep eating eat solid food if you feel well enough to, or liquid carbohydrates such as milk, soup and yoghurt if this is easier
- check your ketone levels if your blood glucose level is high
Seek advice from your diabetes care team or GP if your blood glucose or ketone level remains high after taking insulin, if:
- you’re not sure whether to make any changes to your treatment
- you develop symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
- you have any other concerns
Read more about sick day rules
What Severe Complications Can Occur Because Of Rationing Or Running Out Of Insulin
is an emergency condition that results if you dont have enough insulin to regulate your blood sugar. DKA causes your body to break down fat for energy in the absence of insulin. This leads to a dangerous accumulation of acids known as ketones in your blood that can cause your brain to swell and your body to go into shock.
Signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
Thirst or a very dry mouth
High levels of ketones in your urine
Nausea, vomiting, or stomach pain
A fruity or acetone odor on your breath
Confusion or acting drunk while sober
DKA is so common and can come on so quickly that it is the first sign of type 1 diabetes in 20% of cases, and the way many people with type 1 diabetes are first diagnosed with the condition. If you go into diabetic ketoacidosis, dont try to hide it or make light of it. Treat it as the emergency it is and get to a hospital as soon as possible to recover.
Ive had people tell me theyre tired of taking insulin, or that theyre rationing it due to cost. In type 1 diabetes, thats all it takes to end up in a life-threatening situation, says Dr. Zilbermint.
Don’t Miss: What Happens When Blood Glucose Is Too High
How Is Type 2 Diabetes Treated
Teens with type 2 diabetes often go to a pediatric endocrinologist for treatment. This kind of doctor treats problems affecting hormones, like diabetes. They also may see a dietitian, diabetes educator, or weight management specialist.
The goal of treatment for type 2 diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. Treatment usually includes:
- eating a healthy, balanced diet
- getting regular physical activity
- checking blood sugar levels regularly
- losing weight, if recommended
- taking anti-diabetes pills or getting insulin . If blood sugars remain high, the doctor may add another medicine.
What Are The Different Types Of Insulin
The American Diabetes Association characterizes insulin by how fast it works. But everyones body is different. If you have diabetes, you should expect deviations in the amount of time any medication takes to reach your bloodstream. Here are a few useful terms related to how fast and how long insulin acts in your body:
Onset is defined as the length of time before insulin hits your bloodstream and begins to lower blood glucose.
Peak is the time during which insulin is at its maximum effectiveness at lowering your blood glucose levels.
Duration is the length of time insulin continues to lower your blood glucose levels.
These are the five main types of insulin that doctors prescribe:
Also Check: Blood Sugar 102 After Eating
Favorite Resource For Diabetes Education
If insulin resistance has led you to be diagnosed with diabetes or you want to be educated if that day comes, enroll in a program led by Joslin Diabetes Center experts. The 12-week Why Wait program is designed to help you meet your weight goals, which could improve your bodys sensitivity to insulin.
What Organ Produces Insulin
The natural hormone insulin is produced in the beta cells of an organ known as the pancreas. The pancreas is located in the abdomen behind the lower part of the stomach. It measures about 6 inches long and extends horizontally across the abdomen. The beta cells are located in an area of pancreas known as the pancreatic islets, and are the cells responsible for producing, storing and releasing the hormone called insulin. Insulin is the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels. The pancreas is unique in the sense that it is both an exocrine and endocrine gland. This organ is part of the digestive system and is responsible for producing hormones and enzymes that aid in the break down of food.
Also Check: Insulin Resistance Type 1 Diabetes
What Else Can I Do To Manage My Blood Glucose Levels
Food, sleep, and exercise are all of vital importance for regulating your blood sugar when you have diabetes.
Get enough sleep. Evidence shows that lack of sleep can lead to increased secretion of the hormone cortisol, which is inflammatory and can cause greater insulin resistance. Endocrinologist Al Powers MD of Vanderbilt University notes that when youre deprived of sleep or your sleep is disrupted, your glucose levels tend to go up, whether you have diabetes or not.
Exercise regularly. During exercise, insulin sensitivity is increased, and muscle cells use available insulin more efficiently. When your muscles contract during exercise, they also absorb glucose and use it for energy.
Follow an eating pattern that is healthful for you, as recommended by your doctor, such as the DASH diet or the Mediterranean diet. Both have been shown to help stabilize blood sugar levels.
What Is Insulin And Where Is It Produced
Tucked away behind the stomach is an organ called the pancreas, which produces insulin. Insulin production is regulated based on blood sugar levels and other hormones in the body. In a healthy individual, insulin production and release is a tightly regulated process, allowing the body to balance its metabolic needs.
How does insulin get secreted?
When the beta cell is appropriately stimulated, insulin is secreted from the cell by exocytosis and diffuses into islet capillary blood. C peptide is also secreted into blood, but has no known biological activity.
Recommended Reading: Free Diet Plans For Diabetics
Does Insulin Make You Gain Weight
Insulin causes fat storage, sure, but it doesnt make you gain weight.
When we eat, the carbohydrates in your meal are broken down into glucose, which elevates your blood glucose levels. This, in turn, signals your body to release insulin. The hormone then shuttles glucose from your blood into your muscle & adipocytes , where it can be used for energy or stored for later use. Thereby lowering and stabilizing your blood glucose levels.
So, when your body is functioning optimally, blood glucose & insulin are in lockstep.
Without insulin, glucose would build up in the blood. Having too much sugar in the blood for prolonged periods can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems.
Think about it, why would your body want to break down more fat when theres already plenty of incoming, readily-available nutrients from your meal ? Insulin here is just doing the sensible & rational thing to keep you alive.
Watch out what you eat, bio-available and nutrients are key! So, stay focused on whole-nutrient dense food with high quality of macro & micronutrients.
And last but not least, my favorite fact on insulin: It stimulates your muscles to build new protein its a potent anabolic that directly stimulates cellular pathway in the muscle that regulates muscle growth.
What Tests Will Be Done To Evaluate Insulin Resistance
Your healthcare provider may order the following blood tests to diagnose insulin resistance and/or prediabetes or diabetes:
- Glucose: A fasting plasma glucose or a glucose tolerance test may be used to screen for, diagnose and/or monitor prediabetes, type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes.
- Glycated hemoglobin A1c : This test reveals your average blood glucose levels over the past three months.
- Lipid panel: This is a group of tests that measure specific lipids in your blood, such as total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides.
Your healthcare provider may also order tests that can help diagnose other conditions that are associated with insulin resistance, such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and polycystic ovary syndrome .
Also Check: Can Diabetes Cause Yeast Infections
Diabetes And Your Child
For a parent whose child is diagnosed with a life-long condition, the job of parenting becomes even tougher.
Although being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes will involve coming to terms with the diagnosis, getting used to treatment and making changes to everyday life, your child can still lead a normal and healthy life.
How Do You Take Insulin Without A Syringe
There are several options:
Insulin pens look like large writing pens and can help prevent under- and overdosing. They also dont require refrigeration, are conveniently prefilled, and are more durable than syringes.
Insulin pumps are attached to a thin tube thats implanted under your skin. Pumps are computerized or motorized, and some models also act as glucose monitors. They deliver insulin before each meal along with small amounts through the course of the day. In the US, about 60% of people with diabetes use some form of .
Jet injection devices are a good option if you hate needles. A jet injector holds several doses of insulin. After placing it against your skin, you press a button, and the insulin is pushed through.
Inhaled insulin comes in a pre-measured inhaler and was first approved in 2014. Its short-acting and usually not covered by insurance, which makes it more cost prohibitive than other types of insulin for most people with diabetes.
Unless you have an insulin pump that also works as a glucose monitor, insulin dosing is based on self-monitoring your blood glucose levels. You can check them by doing finger pricks or wearing a device that continuously monitors them for you.
You May Like: Blood Sugar 112 After Eating
The Primary Hormones That Are Produced By The Pancreas Include:
- Insulin this hormone works by allowing the bodys cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it as energy. This in turn helps to reduce high blood sugar levels.
- Gastrin gastrin hormone stimulates specific cells in the stomach that aids in digestion.
- Glucagon this hormone helps insulin to maintain a normal blood sugar level by stimulating the cells to release glucose when it is too low.
- Vasoactive intestinal peptide vasoactive intestinal peptide helps to control absorption and secretion of water from the intestines.
- Somatostatin in case other hormones such as glucagon and insulin are too high, the hormone somatostatin will be released to help maintain blood sugar.
What Are The Signs Of High And Low Blood Sugar
Change your medication with doctor supervision. according to the British Diabetes AssociationGet plenty of sleep.According to recommendations published March 2015 in Sleep Health, according to the Sleep FoundationManage stress well.cortisolstress hormoneaccording to Harvard Health Publishingaccording to the ADA
Read Also: Non Diabetic Blood Sugar Levels After Eating
What Is Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance, also known as impaired insulin sensitivity, happens when cells in your muscles, fat and liver dont respond as they should to insulin, a hormone your pancreas makes thats essential for life and regulating blood glucose levels. Insulin resistance can be temporary or chronic and is treatable in some cases.
Under normal circumstances, insulin functions in the following steps:
- Your body breaks down the food you eat into glucose , which is your bodys main source of energy.
- Glucose enters your bloodstream, which signals your pancreas to release insulin.
- Insulin helps glucose in your blood enter your muscle, fat and liver cells so they can use it for energy or store it for later use.
- When glucose enters your cells and the levels in your bloodstream decrease, it signals your pancreas to stop producing insulin.
For several reasons, your muscle, fat and liver cells can respond inappropriately to insulin, which means they cant efficiently take up glucose from your blood or store it. This is insulin resistance. As a result, your pancreas makes more insulin to try to overcome your increasing blood glucose levels. This is called hyperinsulinemia.
As long as your pancreas can make enough insulin to overcome your cells weak response to insulin, your blood sugar levels will stay in a healthy range. If your cells become too resistant to insulin, it leads to elevated blood glucose levels , which, over time, leads to prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes.
Treating High Blood Glucose
Hyperglycaemia can occur when your blood glucose levels become too high. It can happen for several reasons, such as eating too much, being unwell or not taking enough insulin.
If you develop hyperglycaemia, you may need to adjust your diet or your insulin dose to keep your glucose levels normal. Your diabetes care team can advise you about the best way to do this.
If hyperglycaemia isn’t treated, it can lead to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, where the body begins to break down fats for energy instead of glucose, resulting in a build-up of ketones in your blood.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is very serious and, if not addressed quickly, it can lead to unconsciousness and, eventually, death.
The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
- frequently passing urine
Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
Your healthcare team will educate you on how to decrease your risk of ketoacidosis by testing your own blood for ketones using blood ketone sticks if you’re unwell.
If you develop diabetic ketoacidosis, you’ll need urgent hospital treatment. You’ll be given insulin directly into a vein . You may also need other fluids given by a drip if you’re dehydrated, including salt solution and potassium.
Don’t Miss: How Can I Lower My Blood Sugar Quickly
The Pancreas And Type 1 Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes , the beta cells that produce insulin are attacked by the bodys immune system.
As more beta cells get killed off, the pancreas struggles to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels down and the symptoms of diabetes begin to appear.
Research has shown that whilst many beta cells are killed off, the body can continue to produce very small amounts of insulin even after decades have passed.
The Role Of The Pancreas In The Body
The pancreas plays a part in two different organ systems, the endocrine system and the exocrine system.
The endocrine system includes all the organs which produce hormones, chemicals which are delivered via the blood to help regulate our mood, growth, metabolism and reproduction.
The exocrine system is made up of a number of glands which release substances such as sweat , saliva or, in the case of the pancreas, digestive enzymes
Read Also: What Is The Cause Of Type 1 Diabetes